Glossary & Acronyms

Glossary

Acronyms

A

AARP (American Association of Retired Persons)

AARP is a United States-based nonprofit organization dedicated to empowering Americans 50 and older. | Related:  AARP Food Safety Archives

Glossary

ABR

antibiotic resistant

ABX

antibiotic (or antibiotics)

Acid

A substance with a pH below 7.0. Acidic substances include lemons (pH 2.4) and mayonnaise (pH 3.0).

ACR

American College of Rheumatology

Acute

Course of a disease that is of sudden onset, marked intensity (relatively severe), and short duration.

ADUFA

Animal Drug User Fee Act  A bill that amends the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) and authorizes the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to collect fees for the review of animal drugs. Under ADUFA, the FDA can collect fees for certain animal drug applications and for establishments, products, and sponsors associated with these and previously approved animal drug applications.

Adulterant

What is an adulterant?

An adulterant is a substance found within a food that is detrimental to human or animal health, and its presence renders that product illegal to sell or distribute. Related: Declaring Specific Pathogens Adulterants

Aerobic

An organism growing in the presence of oxygen.

Ag-gag laws

What are ag-gag laws?

Ag-gag laws are a set of anti-whistle-blower laws , that criminalize undercover investigations in the agriculture or food industry (i.e., penalties for filming, sound recording, picture taking, falsifying one’s identity, or lying on a job application). Related:  “Ag-gag” Laws and Whistle-blower Protections 

Agar

A gelatinous material derived from certain marine algae. It is used as a base for bacterial culture media and as a stabilizer and thickener in many food products.

AHI

Animal Health Institute

Allergens

Allergens are substances which cause hypersensitive immune reactions. Such substances are normally harmless and would not cause an immune response in everyone.  Allergens found in food products may endanger human health.

Alliance for the Prudent Use of Antibiotics (APUA)

Alliance for the Prudent Use of Antibiotics stated mission is to strengthen global defenses against infectious disease by ensuring access to effective treatment and promoting appropriate antibiotic use to contain drug resistance.

AMI (American Meat Institute)

The American Meat Institute began in Chicago in 1906 when the Institute was created in response to the passage of the Federal Meat Inspection Act. In 2015, the AMI merged with NAMA (North American Meat Association) to form NAMI (North American Meat Institute), the largest meat and poultry trade association in North America.

AMS

Agricultural Marketing Service (USDA)

Anaerobe

An organism normally growing only in the absence of oxygen.

Anemia

A condition in which the body does not have enough healthy red blood cells. Red blood cells provide oxygen to body tissues.

Animal Generic Drug User Fee Act (AGDUFA)

Animal Generic Drug User Fee Act,  commonly called AGDUFA, is a bill that amends the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) by authorizing the first ever generic animal drug user fee program. AGDUFA authorizes the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to collect user fees for certain abbreviated applications of generic  new animal drugs and certain sponsors of new animal drugs through the 2018 fiscal year.

ANSI

American National Standards Institute

Antibiotic

A substance produced by a microorganism or a similar product produced wholly (synthetic) or partially (semi-synthetic) by chemical synthesis and in low concentrations inhibits the growth of, or kills, bacteria, fungi, or protozoa.

Antibiotic-resistant

An inability for a drug to combat a microorganism, because some (or, less commonly, all) sub-populations of a microbe, usually a bacterial species, are able to survive after exposure to one or more antibiotics.

Antimicrobial drug

What are antimicrobial drugs?

Antimicrobial drugs is a general term used to refer to a group of medications including antibiotics, antifungals, antiprotozoals, and antivirals. These pharmaceutical remedies are used to treat microbial infections in both humans and animals. | Related: 2013 DATA Act

Anuria

The non-passage of urine, in practice is defined as passage of less than 100 milliliters of urine in a day. Anuria is often caused by failure in the function of kidneys. It may also occur because of some severe obstruction like kidney stones or tumors. It may occur with end stage renal disease.

Anuric

The state of producing no urine.

APHA

American Public Health Association

APHIS

Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA)

ARHP

Association of Reproductive Health Professionals

Arrhythmia

An abnormal heart rhythm. The result of abnormal electrical activity or electrical conduction in the heart. May be too fast, too slow, or irregular.

Arthritis

An inflammation of one or more joints. A joint is the area where two bones meet. Arthritis is common in adults 65 and older, but it can affect people of all ages, races, and ethnic groups. Two of the most common forms of arthritis are osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.

ASPCA

The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals

AVMA

American Veterinary Medical Association

B

Bacillus

Any rod-shaped bacterial cell; bacilli (plural). It is one of the three distinct types of bacteria shapes. See coccus(spherical-shaped) and spirillum (spiral-shaped).

Bacteria

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms found in the environment. Bacteria multiply rapidly in food under the right conditions and some bacteria can cause foodborne illness. Helpful bacteria can be used to make yogurt, vinegar, and some cheeses.

Glossary

Bacteriophage

What is a bacteriophage?

A bacteriophage is a virus that infects a bacterium and replicates within it. Bacteriophages were discovered in 1915 and immediately recognized as potential antimicrobials. The term is derived from bacteria and the Greek word phagein, meaning “to devour.” | Related: Bacteriophages to Combat Bacterial Growth

Glossary

Base

A base is a substance with a pH above 7.0. Substances with a base pH include soap (pH 10.0) and ammonia (pH 11.2).

Glossary

Benign

Benign is a term referring to a non-life- or non-health-threatening condition.

Glossary

BIFSCO

Beef Industry Food Safety Council

Glossary

Biliary

Biliary means having to do with the liver or bile ducts.

Glossary

Biological hazard

A biological hazard is disease-causing microorganism or toxins that are found in some plants and fish. Exposure to these hazards or their inclusion in food can pose a health risk.

Glossary

Blood Test

A blood test is a scientific examination of a sample of blood, typically for the diagnosis of illness or for the detection germs such as bacteria or fungi. A blood test can show what type of germ is causing an infection, and help determine the course of treatment.

Glossary

Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)

What is Blood Urea Nitrogen?

BUN is a blood test that measures blood’s content of urea. When you eat protein, your blood carries some of it to your cells; and what’s left over is a waste called urea (which contains nitrogen). Healthy kidneys get rid of urea in the urine and when the kidneys fail, urea stays in the blood. So, the BUN test is used primarily to evaluate renal (kidney) function by measuring the urea found in the blood stream. It may also indicate liver disease or dehydration. In HUS, BUN level rises well above normal, indicating that kidneys are not filtering the blood properly.

Glossary

Botulism

Botulism is a rare but serious paralytic illness caused by a nerve toxin that is produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum.

Glossary

Bradycardia

Bradycardia is a slower than normal heart rate. The heart usually beats between 60 and 100 times a minute in an adult at rest. If you have bradycardia, your heart beats fewer than 60 times minute.

Glossary

BRC

British Retail Consortium

Glossary

Bridgemanization

What is Bridgemanization?

See High Pressure Processing

BSE

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (Mad Cow Disease)

BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy)

BSE is a progressive neurological disorder of cattle that results from infection by an unusual transmissible agent called a prion. The normal prion protein changes into a pathogenic (harmful) form that then damages the central nervous system of cattle. BSE is also commonly called “Mad Cow Disease.”

Glossary

C

CA

Community-Acquired

Glossary

CAFO

Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation

Glossary

Campylobacter jejuni

What is Campylobacter?

Campylobacter jejuni is a species of bacteria commonly found in animal feces. It is one of the most common causes of human gastroenteritis in the world.

Glossary

Carbon Monoxide in Food Packaging

What is carbon monoxide in food packaging?

Using carbon monoxide in the processing of packaged meats and fish is in order to maintain the red, “fresh”-looking color and to extend shelf life. Although there is no data showing the ingestion of carbon monoxide is inherently dangerous, there are concerns that its use in packaging could pose potential dangers for the health and well-being of consumers. | Related: Carbon Monoxide in Food Packaging

Glossary

Cardiomyopathy

Cardiomyopathy refers to diseases of the heart muscle. These diseases have many causes, signs and symptoms, where a heart muscle becomes enlarged, thick, or rigid. In rare cases, the muscle tissue in the heart is replaced with scar tissue.

Glossary

Carrier

A carrier is a symptomless individual who is host to a pathogenic microorganism and who has the potential to pass the pathogen to others.

Glossary

Central Nervous System (CNS)

The CNS is the brain and spinal cord. In HUS, central nervous system involvement means that the brain has become an organ compromised in some way by the disease.

Glossary

Chem 10 or 20

Chem 10 or 20 stands for a battery of chemical tests (Chem 10 = 10 tests; Chem 20 = 20 tests) performed on serum (portion of blood without cells). It is usually performed with a CBC to test for electrolytes, creatinine, BUN, etc.

Glossary

Chemical Hazards

Chemical hazards are substances such as cleaning solutions and sanitizers that can pose a health risk if they end up in food.

Glossary

Chinese Chicken Processing and Importation

In August 2013, the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) announced that it will allow four Chinese facilities to process poultry raised and slaughtered in the United States, Chile, or Canada and then export the processed poultry products back into the United States. However, poultry slaughtered in China will not be allowed to be imported into the United States.| Related: Issues: Chinese Chicken

Glossary

Chronic

Chronic is the course of a disease persisting over a long period of time.

Glossary

Coagulopathy

Coagulopathy is the alteration of the mechanism that leads to normal clotting of the blood; may result in too much or too little clotting.

Glossary

Coccus

Coccus is the term used to describe any bacterium that has a spherical shape. It is one of the three distinct types of bacteria shapes. See bacillus (rod-shaped) and spirillum (spiral-shaped). The plural of coccus is cocci.

Glossary

Colitis

Colitis is inflammation of the colon; the usual symptoms are diarrhea, sometimes with blood and mucus, and lower abdominal pain.

Glossary

Complete Blood Count (CBC)

A CBC is series of tests in which the numbers of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets in a given volume of blood are counted. CBC also measures hemoglobin content and packed cell volume (hematocrit) of red blood cells, assesses the size and shape of the red blood cells (blood smear), and determines the types and percentages of white blood cells. Components of the complete blood count (hemoglobin, hematocrit, white blood cells, platelets, etc.) can also be tested separately when a doctor wants to monitor a specific condition.

Glossary

Contamination

Contamination is the presence of non-disclosed, unintended, and/or harmful substances or microorganisms in food.

Glossary

Corrective Actions

Corrective actions are to be taken when the results of monitoring at the CCP indicate a loss of control.

Glossary

Creatinine

Creatinine is a waste product (from muscle activity) found in the bloodstream that is excreted in urine. Like urea/nitrogen, creatinine is removed by healthy kidneys. In HUS, the creatinine level rises well above normal, indicating kidneys are not filtering the blood properly.

Glossary

Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD)

CJD is a rare, degenerative, invariably fatal brain disorder. In the 1990’s a link was found in the U.K. between Variant CJD and Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE or “mad cow disease”) due to meat from infected cattle entering the food chain.

Glossary

Critical Control Point (CCP)

A CCP is a step at which regulation can be applied and is essential to prevent or eliminate a food safety hazard or reduce it to an acceptable level.

Glossary

Critical Limit

Critical limit is a criterion which separates acceptability from unacceptability.

Glossary

Cross-contamination

Cross-contamination is the transfer of harmful bacteria. Harmful bacteria can not only be transferred from food to food, but also from hands to food.

Glossary

Cryptosporidium parvum

Cryptosporidium parvum is a single-celled animal (protozoa) that can cause foodborne illness.

Glossary

D

Danger Zone

The danger zone is the range of temperatures at which most bacteria multiply rapidly, between 41 °F and 140 °F (50 °C – 60 °C).

Glossary

DATA Act (Delivering Antimicrobial Transparency in Animals)

The DATA Act (2013) is a bill that proposes amendments to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) to enhance reporting requirements pertaining to the use of antimicrobial drugs in feed animals. This would aid both governmental and non-governmental groups in identifying trends in antibiotic resistance, designing appropriate interventions, and fine-tuning any antibiotic resistance efforts that have not proved effective. | Related: Issues: DATA Act

Glossary

Dehydration

What is Dehydration?

Dehydration is a condition where the body does not have as much water and fluids as it should. Dehydration can be mild, moderate, or severe based on how much of the body’s fluid is lost or not replenished. When it is severe, dehydration is a life-threatening emergency.

Glossary

Disease Surveillance

Disease surveillance is an epidemiological practice by which the spread of illness is monitored in order to establish patterns of progression. The main role is to predict, observe, and minimize the harm caused by outbreak, epidemic, and pandemic situations, as well as increase knowledge about which factors contribute to such circumstances. A key part of modern disease surveillance is the practice of disease case reporting.

Glossary

Disinfectant

A disinfectant is a chemical that kills bacteria. Check that surfaces are cleaned of grease, dirt and food before you use a disinfectant. Chemicals that kill bacteria are sometimes called germicides, bactericides, or biocides.

Glossary

DNA Fingerprinting

DNA Fingerprinting is done to identify and evaluate the genetic information called deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in cells. It is called “fingerprinting” because, like fingerprints, it is very unlikely that any two people would have exactly the same DNA information. DNA is used to determine a genetic relationship between two people, and to identify organisms causing a disease.

Glossary

Dosage (inoculum size)

Here, dosage refers to the number of pathogenic microorganisms entering the host.

Glossary

Dysentery

Dysentery is inflammation of intestines with accompanying severe abdominal cramps, and frequent, low-volume stools containing blood, mucus, and fecal leukocytes.

Glossary

E

E. coli O157:H7

E. coli O157:H7 is a strain of enteropathogenic E. coli found in ground beef, raw milk, and chicken. E. coli O157:H7, a pathogenic strain rarely found in humans, produces a toxin that can cause severe damage to the lining of the intestine, the blood vessels, and blood cells.

Glossary

Ecology

Ecology is the study of the relationship between organisms and their environment.

Glossary

Edema

Edema is an abnormal volume of fluid in intercellular tissue.

Glossary

EHEC (Enterohemorrhagic E. coli)

What is EHEC?

EHEC is a type of E. coli bacteria which cause gastrointestinal bleeding most often by producing a blood poison (Verotoxin).

Glossary

Electrolytes

Electrolytes are minerals in your blood and other body fluids that carry an electric charge. Electrolytes effect the amount of water in your body, the acidity of your blood (pH), your muscle function, and other important processes. You lose electrolytes when you sweat. You must replace them by drinking fluids. Common electrolytes include: calcium, chloride, magnesium, phosphorous, potassium, and sodium.

Glossary

Encephalitis

Encephalitis is inflammation of the brain.

Glossary

Endemic

Endemic refers to a disease or pathogen present or usually prevalent in a given population or geographic region at all times.

Glossary

Enteric

Of, relating to, or being within the intestine.

Glossary

Epidemic

An epidemic is a disease occurring suddenly in numbers far exceeding those attributable to endemic disease.

Glossary

Epidemiology

Epidemiology is the study of the patterns, causes, and effects of health and disease conditions in  populations. It is the cornerstone of public health, and informs policy decisions and evidence-based medicine by identifying risk factors for disease and targets for preventive medicine.

Glossary

Epithelial Cells

Epithelial cells make up the lining of surfaces in the body such as the intestinal tract.

Glossary

Escherichia coli (E. coli)

E. coli is part of the normal bacterial flora in the intestines of many animals, including humans. Normally, E. coli serves a useful function in the body by suppressing the growth of harmful bacterial species and by synthesizing essential vitamins. There are pathogenic E. coli strains, such as O157:H7, that cause human illness.

Glossary

Etiology

Etiology is the cause or origin of a disease; the study of the cause(s) of disease.

Glossary

Exogenous

Exogenous means originating outside of the host.

Glossary

 

F

Factory Farming

What is Factory Farming?

Also known as intensive animal farming or concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), factory farming is the industrialized production of livestock, including cattle, poultry and fish, in confinement at high-stocking density. It often requires the use of antibiotics and pesticides to mitigate the spread of disease and pestilence exacerbated by crowded living conditions,  as well as to stimulate livestock growth by killing off intestinal bacteria. | Related: Issues: Factory Farming

Glossary

Farm Bill

What is the Farm Bill?

The primary agriculture and food policy tool of the United States federal government. The Farm Bill deals with agricultural policy as well as all other affairs under the jurisdiction of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Newly proposed reforms (H.R. 2419) to the most current farm bill raise concerns about food safety by granting individual states more power over food inspection than the federal government. | Related: Issues: The Farm Bill

Glossary

Febrile

Febrile means pertaining to or marked by fever; feverish. A febrile seizure is a convulsion in a child triggered by a fever.

Glossary

Fecal-Oral Transmission

Fecal-oral is a route of disease transfer. It is when the fecal particles of one organism are ingested by another organism. This transfers bacteria and viruses, and can cause illness.

Glossary

Fibrin

Fibrin is the final product of the process of coagulation; a fibrin links of with similar molecules to make a fibrous meshwork that forms the basis of a blood clot.

Glossary

Food Irradiation

What is Food Irradiation?

The process of exposing food to a high-powered source of energy (i.e. gamma rays, x-rays, or electronic beams) that strips electrons from individual atoms of  targeted bacteria, viruses, protozoans or fungi rendering the pathogen or adulterant inactive. Irradiation is used to preserve food, reduce risk of foodborne illness, prevent the spread of invasive pests, delay or eliminate sprouting or ripening, and sterilization. | Related: Issues: Irradiation in Food Production

Glossary

Food Safety

What is Food Safety?

Food safety is a scientific discipline describing handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent foodborne illness. | Related: Food Safety as a Marketing Tool

Glossary

Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA)

What is FSMA?

FSMA is a bill that was signed into law by President Obama on January 4, 2011. Officially known as FDA Food Safety Modernization Act, it provides the FDA with new enforcement authority designed to achieve higher rates of compliance with prevention- and risk-based food safety standards, new tools to hold imported foods to the same standards as domestic foods, and directs the FDA to build an integrated national food safety system in partnership with state and local authorities. However, while it is the most sweeping food safety legislation within the past 70 years, Congress’ capitulation to special interest groups through exemptions for certain food products and lack of funding could seriously undermine the preventative goals of FSMA.

Glossary

Foodborne Illness

Foodborne illness, commonly called food poisoning, is an illness that occurs when people eat food that has been contaminated with harmful germs (particularly bacteria and viruses) or toxins (poisonous substances).

Glossary

Fulminant Presentation

Fulminant presentation is a sudden, severe onset of symptoms.

Glossary

G

Gastroenteritis

What is Gastroenteritis?

Gastroenteritis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract that involves both the stomach (“gastro”-) and the small intestine (“entero”-). It results in some combination of diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain and cramping. Gastroenteritis has also been referred to as gastro, stomach bug, and stomach flu. Gastroenterology is the study of the stomach and intestine and their diseases.

Glossary

Genetic Marker

A genetic marker is a gene or DNA sequence with a known location on a chromosome that can be used to identify individuals or species.

Glossary

Glomerular Filtration | Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR)

Glomerular filtration is the action provided by the glomeruli (a network of capillaries that performs the first step of filtering blood) in the kidneys.

GFR is a measurement of how well the kidneys are filtering waste products. GFR is a formula that is based on a patient’s weight, gender, and race as well as on the BUN, creatinine, and serum albumin tests.

Glossary

 

Glomeruli

Glomeruli are networks of blood capillaries contained within the end of a nephron, the site of primary filtration of blood waste products in the kidneys.

Glossary

GMO (Genetically Modified Organism)

What is a GMO?

A genetically modified organism is a plant or animal that has been altered by the addition of DNA from bacteria, viruses, or other plants and animals in order to bring increased yield, drought tolerance, enhanced nutrition, or other consumer benefits. | Related: Issues: GMOs

Glossary

Gram-negative Bacteria

What is Gram-negative?

Gram-negative bacteria appear red or pink after Gram staining. Their cell walls lack a thick layer of peptidoglycan, and cannot retain the crystal violet stain, instead taking up the counterstain (safranin or fuchsine). These bacteria cause infections including pneumonia, bloodstream infections, wound or surgical site infections, and meningitis in healthcare settings. Gram-negative bacteria are resistant to multiple drugs and are increasingly resistant to most available antibiotics. Examples of gram-negative bacteria are Campylobacter, Escherichia coli, Vibrio, and Yersinia.

Glossary

Gram-positive Bacteria

What is Gram-positive?

Gram-positive bacteria are those that are stained dark blue or violet by Gram staining. These bacteria have thick peptidoglycan layers in their cell walls that retain the dark stain, differentiating them from Gram-negative bacteria. Gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, Listeria, and Clostridium are responsible for a large proportion of serious infections worldwide.

Glossary

Guidance Document

What is a Guidance Document?

A written document that represents a regulatory authority’s current thinking on a topic. Guidance documents do not create or confer any rights for or on any person nor do they bind the agency or the public. Guidance documents are not laws. | Related: Issues: Guidance Documents versus Regulations

Glossary

Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS)

What is Guillain-Barré Syndrome?

A rare disorder in which a person’s own immune system damages their nerve cells, causing muscle weakness and sometimes paralysis, starting from the lower extremities moving upward. GBS can cause symptoms that last for a few weeks, to years, although this is uncommon. Most people recover fully from GBS, but some people have permanent nerve damage.

Glossary

H

HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points)

What is HACCP?

HACCP is a systematic, preventative approach to food safety originally conceived in the 1960s. HACCP (pronounced hassup) is a product management system that includes first analysis and then control of biological, chemical, and physical hazards in the food production chain from raw material, production, procurement, and handling to manufacturing, distribution, and consumption of the finished product. | Related: Issues: HACCP

Glossary

HACCP Plan

A HACCP plan is a document prepared in accordance with the principles of HACCP to ensure control of hazards which are significant for food safety in the segment of the food chain under consideration.

Glossary

Hand Washing

Why is Hand Washing Important?

Hand washing refers to the cleansing of hands with soap and water to remove bacteria. This differs from hand sanitizer use which does not remove, but inactivates pathogens. Proper hand washing can prevent the spread of disease and foodborne illnesses, by “washing away” pathogens on hands. | Related: Issues: Hand Washing and Food Safety

Glossary

Hazard

A hazard is a biological, chemical or physical agent or factor with the potential to cause an adverse health effect.

Glossary

Hazard Analysis

Hazard analysis is the process of collecting and evaluating information on hazards and conditions leading to their presence to decide which are significant for food safety and therefore should be addressed in the HACCP plan.

Glossary

Health Department (or Ministry)

A Health Department or Health Ministry is a part of government which focuses on issues related to the general health of the citizenry. Subnational entities, such as states, counties, and cities, often also operate a health department of their own. Health departments perform food inspection (the person who performs this job is often called a health inspector), vaccination programs, and other medical assistance, and compile statistics about health issues of their area.

Glossary

Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS)

What is Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome?

HUS is a disorder that usually occurs when an infection in the digestive system produces toxic substances that destroy red blood cells, causing kidney injury. It is frequently a complication associated with E. coli O157:H7 infection.

Glossary

Hemorrhage

Hemorrhage is the medical term for bleeding, usually referring to excessive internal bleeding. Hemorrhagic diseases are caused by, or result in, bleeding (hemorrhaging).

Glossary

Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A is a liver disease that results from infection with the Hepatitis A virus. It can range in severity from a mild illness lasting a few weeks to a severe illness lasting several months. Hepatitis A is usually spread when a person ingests fecal matter — even in microscopic amounts — from contact with objects, food, or drinks contaminated by the feces or stool of an infected person.

Glossary

High Pressure Processing (HPP)

What is High Pressure Processing?

Also called Pascalization or Bridgemanization, HPP is a method of preserving and sterilizing food. It uses pressure instead of heat to inhibit micro flora growth in fresh food and therefore naturally extends shelf life. 

Glossary

High-risk

High-risk means involving or exposed to a high level of danger. Certain foods can be referred to as high-risk to transmit pathogens, or people can be high-risk for getting a foodborne infection.

Glossary

HIMP (HACCP-based Inspection Model Project)

HIMP is a new poultry slaughter inspection system based on the Food Safety and Inspection Service’s (FSIS) 15-year pilot program. HIMP has faced strong criticism from consumers and food safety groups for privatizing poultry inspections, decreasing the number of US Department of Agriculture (USDA) inspectors, replacing inspectors with untrained company employees, and allowing inspection line speeds to increase. The USDA released its final rule July 31, 2014 allowing plants to transition into a new system, or keep their current best practices. | Related: Issues: HIMP Rule

Glossary

I

Immune System

The immune system is a complex interconnected network of cells, tissues, and organs (including the thymus and bone marrow and lymphoid tissues). It protects the body from foreign substances and pathogenic organisms. Reactions arising from this system are commonly referred to as an immune response.

Glossary

Immuno-compromised

Immuno-compromised is a term to describe an individual with an existing disease or condition. These individuals may be more susceptible to foodborne illness because their immune system is weakened or combating something else.

Glossary

Incubation Period

Incubation period is the time elapsed between exposure to a pathogen, chemical, or radiation hazard, and when symptoms and signs are first apparent. It is also called the latent period or latency period. | Related: Usual Incubation / Onset Period Ranges for Select Foodborne Diseases

Glossary

Infarction

Infarction is tissue death, most often the result of inadequate blood supply caused by a blood clot. The resulting lesion is referred to as an infarct.

Glossary

Infection

Infection is when a human or animal body is invaded by a harmful bacterial, fungal or viral pathogen. Normal bacterial flora in the intestine is not considered an infection. Infections can be localized, such as in one ear, or widespread, such as sepsis. Infections are often accompanied by pain and/or fever.

Glossary

Inflammation

Inflammation is the body’s attempt at self-protection. The aim of inflammation is to remove harmful stimuli including damaged cells, irritants, or pathogens. It is the beginning of the healing process and creates swollen tissues.

Glossary

Intensive Animal Farming

See Factory Farming or CAFO.

Glossary

Internal cooking temperatures or internal temperature

Internal temperature refers to the temperature of the innermost portion of a food product. For example, the thickest part of a chicken breast or center of a hamburger. | RelatedRecommended: Minimum Cooking Temperatures

Glossary

Interstate Milk Freedom Act

Had the Interstate Milk Freedom Act (2014 and 2015) passed and been adopted, it would have disallowed a federal department, agency, or court from taking any action that would prohibit, regulate, or otherwise restrict the interstate traffic of milk or a milk product that is unpasteurized and packaged for direct human consumption if:
(1) such action is based solely upon a determination that because the milk or milk product is unpasteurized it is adulterated, misbranded, or otherwise in violation of federal law;
(2) the milk or milk product’s state of origin allows unpasteurized milk or unpasteurized milk products to be distributed for direct human consumption by any means;
(3) the milk or milk product is moved from the state of origin for transport to another state which allows the distribution of unpasteurized milk or unpasteurized milk products for direct human consumption. | Related: Issues: Raw Milk

Glossary

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

Irritable bowel syndrome is diagnosed when a person has had abdominal pain or discomfort at least three times a month for 3 months without other disease or injury that could explain the pain. The pain and discomfort of IBS may occur with a change in stool frequency, consistency, or be relieved by a bowel movement.

Glossary

Ischemia

Ischemia is an inadequate blood supply to a certain part of the body. It is caused by constriction or blockage of blood vessels.

Glossary

K

KAW

Keep Antibiotics Working is a coalition of health, consumer, agricultural, environmental, humane, and other advocacy groups. With more than eleven million members, they are dedicated to eliminating a major cause of antibiotic resistance — the inappropriate use of antibiotics in food animals.

Glossary

Kill Step

“Kill step” is the term typically used to describe a point in the food manufacturing process. It refers to the step where potentially deadly pathogens are eradicated from the product (usually by killing the pathogen).

Glossary

L

Listeriosis

Listeriosis is the name for the disease when you are infected with Listeria monocytogenes. The bacteria can be found in vegetables, milk, cheese, meat, and seafood. | Related: Allison’s story

Glossary

Lysis

Lysis is the destruction of cells by damage or rupture of the cell membrane.

Glossary

M

Mad Cow Disease

See BSE

Glossary

Marine Toxins

Marine toxins are naturally occurring chemicals that can contaminate certain seafood. The seafood contaminated with these chemicals frequently looks, smells, and tastes normal. Eating contaminated seafood results in food poisoning.

Glossary

Mechanically Tenderized Beef

What is Mechanically Tenderized Beef?

Mechanical tenderizing is a process to break down collagens (the main structural protein of the various connective tissues in animals) using blades which poke into meat. It is done to make less tender pieces more palatable for consumption.

Beef that is mechanically tenderized is run through a machine and punctured with blades or needles to make tough meat more tender. The process of mechanically tenderizing can drive bacteria from the surface of the meat to the center, where bacteria are harder to kill when cooking. | Related: Issues: Mechanically Tenderized Beef 

Glossary

Microangiopathy

Microangiopathy is damage to the walls of the smallest blood vessels.

Glossary

Microbiological Inspection

What is Microbiological Inspection?

Microbiological inspections are lab-based food inspections for high-risk pathogens. Among these pathogens are E. coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, and Shigella. | Related: Issues: HACCP

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Microorganism

Microorganism is a general term for bacteria, molds, fungus, or viruses that can be seen only with a microscope.

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Moisture Content

Moisture content refers to the amount of water in food.

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Motility

Motility refers to movement. It can be movement of food from the mouth through the gastrointestinal tract, or movement of bacteria.

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MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus)

MRSA is a bacterium that causes a number of hard-to-treat infections. Pronounced “mursa,” it is a drug-resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus, or “the golden cluster seed,” a spherical bacterium that is the most common cause of staph infections. Each year, 90,000 Americans suffer from invasive MRSA infection. Of the nearly 20,000 who die, many are children.

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N

National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS)

The NNDSS is a multifaceted public health disease tracking tool that gives public health officials powerful capabilities to monitor the occurrence and spread of diseases. It is a program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

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NCEZID

National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (CDC)

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Necrosis

Necrosis is death of tissue or cells caused by disease, injury, or interference of blood supply.

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Nephrology

Nephrology is the specialty of medicine dealing with kidney function, kidney problems, the treatment of kidney problems, and renal replacement therapy (dialysis and kidney transplantation).

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Neutral

Neutral refers to a substance with a pH of 7.0. Foods with a pH close to neutral include meats and milk products (pH 6.4).

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Non-specific Symptoms

Non-specific symptoms are self-reported indications that do not specify a precise disease process.

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Norovirus

Norovirus is a virus that can contaminate anything including raw oysters/shellfish, water and ice, and salads. It spreads through person-to-person contact, and is often linked to outbreaks on cruise ships.

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Not-Ready-to-Eat (NRTE) Poultry Products

What is Not-Ready-to-Eat (NRTE) Poultry Products?

NRTE poultry products include poultry that is ground, mechanically-separated, or hand- or mechanically-deboned and further chopped, flaked, minced, or otherwise processed to reduce particle size. NRTE poultry products are not battered or breaded. | Related: Issues: Poultry Products Sampling

Glossary

O

Organic

What is an Organic Label?

Organic is a labeling term that indicates that food or other agricultural products have been produced through federally- approved US Department of Agriculture (USDA) methods that integrate cultural, biological, and mechanical practices fostering the cycling of resources, promoting ecological balance, and conserving biodiversity. Synthetic fertilizers, sewage sludge, irradiation, and genetic engineering may not be used in organic foods. | Related: Issues: National Organic Program

Glossary

Organoleptic Inspection

What is Organoleptic Inspection?

Organoleptic inspection is also known as the poke and sniff method. These food quality and safety inspections are sensory-based and do not involve laboratory testing. During organoleptic inspections, inspectors use sight, taste, smell, and touch to detect signs of disease or contamination in food. Related: Issues: HACCP

Glossary

Outbreak

An outbreak is an occurrence in a community or region of cases of an illness with a frequency clearly in excess of normal expectancy.

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Ozone

What is Ozone?

Ozone is an inorganic molecule (O3) that has been found to be effective in controlling microorganisms of all types without producing by-products that can be harmful to humans. Ozone has been used to control for microorganisms in swimming pools, bottled waters, and municipal water plants as well as for odor and mold control and the storing and packaging of harvested agricultural products and processed foods. | Related: Issues: Ozone Use in Food Production 

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P

Parasites

Parasites are tiny organisms can cause severe illness. Parasites need nutrients from their host to complete their life cycle. They are often associated with raw or undercooked meat and fish, including pork.

Glossary

Pasteurization

Pasteurization is when a food is brought to an elevated temperature or high pressure for a period of time, in a precise manner. The process is sufficient to destroy certain microorganisms like those that can produce disease or cause spoilage or undesirable fermentation of food. Pasteurization does not radically alter taste, quality, or nutritional attributes.  Foods that can be pasteurized include milk, cheese, yogurt, lunch meat, or eggs.

Glossary

Pathogen

A pathogen is a disease-causing microorganism.

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PCR

Polymerase Chain Reaction

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Perishable

When food is perishable, it means it’s subject to decay or spoilage unless properly stored.

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Personal Hygiene

Personal hygiene is the way someone maintains their health, appearance, and cleanliness.

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pH

The pH (potential Hydrogen) is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a substance, on a scale from 0 to 14.0. For example, lemons and vinegar have a pH of 2, while bleaches and oven cleaner have a pH of 13.5.

Glossary

Physical Hazard

A physical hazard is the presence of foreign inedible materials, like glass or metal, in foods that have the potential to cause harm if eaten.

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Pilot Project

What is a Pilot Project?

A pilot project is a small-scale preliminary project that, in this context, is focused on developing new technologies for safer food. | Related: Issues: Pilot Projects

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Pioneer Drugs

Pioneer drugs are medicines that are researched, developed, and usually patented by a company for a specific purpose using a trademarked brand name. Because of the patent, typically valid for 20 years from date of patent application, other manufacturers cannot produce or sell the same drug product for the duration of the patent period. Pioneer drugs serve as a reference for other generic, or non-name brand drugs delivering the same desired effect.

Glossary

Platelet Microthrombi

Platelet microthrombi refers to tiny blood clots.

Glossary

Platelets (thrombocytes)

Platelets are the tiny blood cells that initiate blood clotting. Platelets are necessary to form clots in a healthy person. In HUS, platelets form into tiny clots in the bloodstream, thereby dramatically reducing platelets available for normal clotting and leaving the patient susceptible to excessive internal bleeding.

Glossary

Potentially Hazardous Food

Potentially hazardous foods include those that are moist, high-protein, and low acid as these are ideal conditions for bacterial growth. Some examples are milk or milk products, shell eggs, meats, poultry, fish, shellfish, baked or boiled potatoes, tofu and other soy-protein foods, plant foods that have been heat-treated, raw seed sprouts, or synthetic ingredients.

Glossary

Poultry Product Sampling

What is Poultry Products Sampling?

Poultry product sampling is a poultry inspection program run by the US Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) to ensure that poultry products are safe for consumption. Despite increased outbreaks of Salmonella linked to poultry products, the USDA continues to delay a reform of its poultry products sampling process.

Glossary

Preserve

To preserve means to maintain quality and safety of food by removing moisture and/or air.

Glossary

Product Traceback

What is a Product Traceback?

A product traceback is an investigation upon discovery of a contaminated food to find the source of contamination. Either a case of illness or an adulterated product is identified, records are checked to see where the product came from, and processes are checked to identify where the contamination even occurred. This differs from traceforward investigations in that the contaminated product or illness is identified, and then records are checked to see where else the product may have gone to. | Related:Issues: Product Tracebacks

Glossary

Proteinuria

Proteinuria is the presence of protein in the urine; may indicate damage to or disease of kidneys.

Glossary

R

Raw Juice

What is Raw Juice?

Raw juice, like raw milk, has not been pasteurized. Raw juice can cause harm to human health as it may contain pathogens that would have been inactivated by the pasteurization process. | Related: Issues: Raw Juice

Glossary

Raw Milk

What is Raw Milk?

Raw milk is milk that has not been pasteurized. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) state that it is 150 times more likely to cause illness than pasteurized milk and results in 13 times more hospitalizations than illnesses involving pasteurized dairy products. This is because pasteurization will kill pathogens, and increases the safety of dairy milk. | Related: Issues: Raw Milk

Glossary

Raw Milk Products

Raw milk products are those that are not pasteurized. Many potentially deadly pathogens, such as E. coli O157:H7, Listeria, and Salmonella, are killed or inactivated by pasteurization. Contaminated raw milk can be used to make cheeses (hard, semi-hard, soft), cream, yogurt, butter, ice cream, etc. thereby contaminating those products as well. Though some believe otherwise, the FDA states there are no health benefits to raw milk; pasteurization does not change the taste, look, or nutritional qualities of the milk product.| Related: Mari’s Story

Glossary

Reactive Arthritis

What is Reactive Arthritis?

Reactive arthritis is a painful form of inflammatory arthritis (joint disease due to inflammation). It occurs following infections by bacteria like Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, and Yersinia. | Related: Dana’s Story

Glossary

Red Blood Cells (RBCs)

Red blood cells carry oxygen to all parts of the body. In HUS, red blood cells are shredded faster than the body can replace them, so the body struggles to get oxygen to all necessary parts.

Glossary

Regulations

What are regulations in relation to foodborne illnesses?

Regulations are documents issued by a regulatory agency to implement its statutory authority. They create binding obligations and have the force of the law. | Related: Issues: Guidance Documents versus Regulations

Glossary

Rehydration

Rehydration is the restoration of water or fluid content to a patient or to a substance that has become dehydrated.

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Renal

Renal means of the, or relating to, kidneys.

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Renal Failure

Renal failure is a medical condition in which the kidneys fail to adequately filter waste products from the blood.

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Restaurant Inspection or Restaurant Rating

A restaurant rating is a score given to a retail food establishment (restaurants, grocery stores, bakeries, convenience stores, hospitals, nursing homes, day care facilities, shelters, schools, and temporary food service events) depending on how well it follows City and State food safety requirements. Public Health Inspectors check for such things as food handling, food temperature, personal hygiene, facility and equipment maintenance, and vermin (rats, cockroaches, etc.) control. Often, cities and states have different rating systems.

Glossary

Reusable Grocery Bags

What are Reusable Grocery Bags?

Reusable grocery bags are bags made of canvas, plastic, or woven synthetic fibers and are intended for multiple shopping trips. Because reusable grocery bags tend to go unwashed after carrying raw meat products, they have been linked with an increase in E. coli infections over the one-time use plastic or paper bags typically offered at the store check out. Using reusable grocery bags is smart, but remember to regularly wash them to avoid cross contamination. | Related: Issues: Reusable Grocery Bags

Glossary

 

RFP

Request for Proposal

Glossary

Rotavirus

Rotavirus is a virus that causes gastroenteritis (inflammation of the stomach and intestines). In babies and young children, rotavirus infection causes severe watery diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and abdominal pain, which can lead to dehydration (loss of body fluids). Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea in infants and young children worldwide.

Glossary

RTE (Ready to Eat)

Food that requires no further cooking or preparation in order to be eaten is considered RTE.

Glossary

S

Safe Food Coalition (SFC)

What is the Safe Food Coalition?

The SFC is a group of consumer, public health, whistle-blower, and labor organizations that holds regular meetings in Washington, D.C. It works to educate the public about the hazards of foodborne illness and seeks Congressional and administrative action to improve food safety of products regulated by both the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Stop Foodborne Illness is an active member of the Safe Food Coalition. | Related: Issues: Product Tracebacks

Glossary

 

Salmonellosis

Salmonellosis is infection with Salmonella species. These bacteria can be found in meat, poultry, and egg or milk products.

Glossary

Sanitize

To be sanitized means that surfaces are free of harmful levels of disease-causing microorganisms and other potentially harmful contaminants. Surfaces must be cleaned of debris before they can be sanitized. Equipment such as meat slicers, counters, food preparation tables, cutting boards and utensils must be sanitized.

Glossary

Sanitizing Solution

Sanitizing solutions are used to clean things effectively and reduce numbers of bacteria and viruses. Dilute mixtures of chlorine bleach and water are a common and cost-effective method for sanitizing equipment. In order to lower the number of microorganisms to an acceptable level, the sanitizing solution must make contact with the surface or the utensil for the amount of time required by the state or local regulatory authority. | Related: Downloadable PDF on making a sanitizing solution.

Glossary

Sell-by Date

Sell-by dates are used by retailers to guide rotation of shelf stock. This date does not indicate when a product should be consumed by, only when a store can no longer allow the sale of it.

Glossary

Septicemia

Septicemia is also known as bacteremia or blood poisoning. Septicemia occurs when a bacterial infection enters the bloodstream. Untreated septicemia can quickly progress to sepsis, which is a serious complication of an infection characterized by inflammation throughout the body. This inflammation can cause blood clots and block oxygen from reaching vital organs, resulting in organ failure and death in some cases.

Glossary

Sequelae

Sequelae are the secondary consequences or health effects of an infection or disease.

Glossary

Serogroup

A serogroup is a group of bacteria containing a common antigen, sometimes including more than one serotype, species, or genus. This is an unofficial designation used in the classification of certain genera of bacteria, such as Salmonella, Shigella, and Streptococcus.

Glossary

Serum Albumin

Serum albumin is the amount of protein in the fluid part of your blood, which is also a measurement of your general nutrition.

Glossary

Shigella/Shigellosis

Shigellosis is an infectious disease caused by a group of bacteria called Shigella. Most that are infected with Shigella develop diarrhea, fever, and stomach cramps starting a day or two after they are exposed to the bacteria. The diarrhea is often bloody. Shigellosis usually resolves in 5 to 7 days.

Glossary

Spinal Fluid Test

A spinal fluid test, also called a spinal tap or lumbar puncture, is a procedure that removes and tests some of the cerebrospinal fluid to help diagnose disorders of the brain and spinal cord, including multiple sclerosis.

Glossary

Spirillum

Spirillum refers to a bacterium with a cell body that twists like a spiral.

Glossary

Staphylococcus

Staphylococcus is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria. Under the microscope, they appear round (cocci), and form in grape-like clusters. Staphylococcus aureus, a species of Staphylococcus, can often be found in custard or cream-filled baked goods, ham, poultry, eggs, potato salad, cream sauces, sandwich fillings.

Glossary

STEC (Shiga Toxin-Producing E. coli)

What is STEC?

STEC is an acronym for “Shiga toxin-producing E. coli.” Sometimes called verocytotoxic or verotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC) or enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), these all refer generally to the same group of bacteria. The most commonly identified STEC in North America is E. coli O157:H7.

 

Glossary

Stomach Flu

Stomach flu is a colloquial term given to a short-lived stomach disorder of unknown cause, popularly attributed to a virus, but may actually be foodborne illness.

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STOP

STOP (or S.T.O.P.) is the acronym for Safe Tables Our Priority. Founded in 1994, STOP changed its name to Stop Foodborne Illness in 2011. Many refer to Stop Foodborne Illness as “Stop” still today.

Glossary

T

Temperature Danger Zone

The temperature danger zone is the range in which foodborne bacteria can grow. Food safety agencies, such as the United States’ Food Safety and Inspection Service, define the danger zone as roughly 39–41 to 140 °F (4–5 to 60 °C).

Glossary

Thrombocytopenia

Thrombocytopenia is a reduction of the number of platelets in the blood. | See TTP

Glossary

Thrombus

A thrombus is a blood clot. Thrombosis is the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system. When a blood vessel is injured, the body uses platelets (thrombocytes) and fibrin to form a thrombus to prevent blood loss. Even when a blood vessel is not injured, blood clots may form in the body under certain conditions. A clot that breaks free and begins to travel around the body is known as an embolus. 

Glossary

Toxin

A toxin is a poisonous substance that is produced by living cells or organisms. Toxins are capable of causing disease when introduced into the body tissues but are often also capable of inducing neutralizing antibodies or antitoxins.

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Toxoplasmosis

Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic infection caused by contamination from rat, rodent or bird feces, cat litter boxes, or undercooked pork.

Glossary

TTP (Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura)

What is TTP?

TTP stands for Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura, which is a blood disorder that causes blood clots to form in small blood vessels around the body. This leads to a low platelet count.

Glossary

U

Urea

Urea is one of the nitrogenous waste products formed in the liver as the end result of protein metabolism. Urea is excreted from the body in urine. (See BUN)

Glossary

Urogenital

Urogenital means relating to or involving both the urinary and genital structures and functions.

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UTI (Urinary Tract Infection)

Urinary tract infections, or UTI’s, can happen anywhere along the urinary tract. This includes the kidneys, ureters, and urethra. Urinary tract infections are caused by germs, usually bacteria, that enter the urethra and then the bladder. This can lead to infection, most commonly in the bladder itself, which can spread to the kidneys.

Glossary

V

Verotoxin

Verotoxin is a poisonous molecule that damages or attacks the blood.

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Vibrio species

Vibrios are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that occur naturally in estuarine or marine environments. Infection is usually from exposure to seawater or consumption of raw or undercooked seafood. | Related: Dona’s Story

Glossary

Virulent

Virulent is a term used to describe something that is extremely infectious, malignant, or poisonous. For example, some bacteria are more virulent than others, and will cause more severe disease.

Glossary

Viruses

What are Viruses?

Viruses are microscopic, disease-causing particles that utilize living cells to replicate. Viruses grow or reproduce only in living cells. They are often found in untreated water or sewage-contaminated water. Viruses from human feces on unwashed hands can infect others by passing the virus to food. Normal cooking can lower the risk of illness, but may not destroy all viruses.

Glossary

VTEC (Verotoxin-producing E. coli)

What is VTEC?

VTEC is an acronym for Verotoxin-producing E. coli, a class of E. coli that puts poison into the bloodstream and thereby injures blood. | Related:  Shigatoxin

Glossary

W

Washing Poultry

Washing poultry refers to rinsing meat from any domesticated bird prior to cooking and consumption. Stop Foodborne Illness does not recommend washing poultry. Washing poultry in sinks may lead to splashing and a large radius of bacteria spread in and around the sink. It is a common misconception that you need to wash chicken prior to cooking. 

Glossary

Water Activity

Water activity (Aw) refers to the amount of water that is available for bacterial growth or deterioration reactions, and is measured on a scale of 0 to 1.0. Bacteria, yeast, and mold multiply rapidly at a high water activity–above 0.86. Meat, produce and soft cheeses have Aw in this range (between 0.86 and 1.0).

Glossary

Whistle-blower

A whistle-blower is a person who exposes misconduct and alleged dishonest or illegal activity occurring in an organization. Whistle-blowers in the food industry reveal critical information about the mishandling of animal products (i.e., meat, eggs, milk) by farms and slaughterhouses that can lead to Salmonella, mad cow disease, and other potentially fatal illnesses.

Glossary

WHO (World Health Organization)

The World Health Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health. Established on 7 April 1948, it is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland.

Glossary

Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS)

What is Whole Genome Sequencing?

Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is a laboratory technique that determines, in one process, the DNA fingerprint of an organism. Analyzing all of a living organism’s genetic material, allows very precise differentiation between and within species. According to the FDA, WGS is used in foodborne outbreaks to identify pathogens from food or environmental samples, which can then be compared to samples collected from patients. If the pathogens found in food or the environment match the pathogens from sick patients, then a reliable link between the two can be made, which helps define the scope of a foodborne illness outbreak. | Related: GenomeTrakr | CDC: WGS + Foodborne Disease            

Glossary

WIC (Women, Infants, and Children)

Women, Infants, and Children or WIC, is a federally-funded program of the Food and Nutrition Services (FNS) of the USDA. It targets the health and nutrition needs of  low-income, nutritionally-at-risk mothers and children.

Glossary

World Trade Organization (WTO)

The World Trade Organization or WTO is a forum for trade negotiations between nations, providing technical assistance, and handling disputes.

Glossary

Acronyms

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